Types of Insanity

                                                     A MANUAL OF PSYCHOLOGICAL MEDICINE:
                                                                            CONTAINING
                                              THE HISTORY, NOSOLOGY, DESCRIPTION, STATISTICS,
                                             DIAGNOSIS, PATHOLOGY, AND TREATMENT OF INSANITY
                                                              WITH AN APPENDIX OF CASES
                              BY JOHN CHARLES BUCKNILL, M.D., LOND., AND BY DANIEL H. TUKE, M.D
                                                    [PHILADELPHIA:BLANCHARD AND LEA.,1858]

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Acute Mania Acute Suicidal Melancholia Secondary Dementia Congenital Imbecility
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Primary Dementia General Paralysis Monomania of Pride

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Sir John Charles Bucknill [1817-1897]
For the first eighteen years of his practice in psychiatry, from 1844 to 1862, he was medical superintendent of one of the newly built county asylums at Exminster in Devon. From 1853 he became the first editor of the new professionís journal, the Asylum Journal of Mental Science [subsequently the Journal of Mental Science], published by the Association of Medical Officers of Asylums and Hospitals for the Insane [AMOAHI]. In 1858, together with Daniel Hack Tuke [1827-1895], he published A Manual of Psychological Medicine, which became established as the first textbook on insanity. In 1860-1 He led the profession  nationally, as president of the AMOAHI. From 1862-1875 he held public office as one of the Lord Chancellorís Visitors in Lunacy, charged with inspecting the care and treatment of Chancery cases both in and out of asylums. In the late 1870s he worked from consulting rooms in Wimpole Street as a lunacy specialist, helping establish a style of private practice based on office consultancy rather than institutional care. During the same period, he was also one of the founding editors of the new journal Brain, which became the journal of the newly formed Neurological society and  which fostered a neuropsychiatric approach to understanding the physical pathology of insanity [Scull, MacKenzie & Hervey, 1996, 188].

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Daniel Hack Tuke [1827-1895]
        Daniel Hack Tuke, the youngest son of Samuel Tuke and the great grandson of William Tuke, the founder of the Retreat, was born in York in 1827. After a brief period of interest in becoming a lawyer, he became friendly with Dr. Thurman, the superintendant of the York Retreat and, in 1847, began working as a steward in the asylum. In 1850 he went to London to study medicine. In 1853, he married, received his MD from Heidelberg University and went on a tour of asylums in Holland, Germany, Austria and France. He briefly set up a medical practice in York, but became ill with a pulmonary hemorrhage, which forced him to move south in search of a milder climate. He settled in Falmouth, where he lived for fifteen years.
         In 1858 he published the Manual of Psychological Medicine, with John Charles Bucknill. Tuke wrote the first half of the book--on lunacy laws, and the classification and causation of insanity.
         In 1875, his health improved, he moved to London and became a consultant in lunacy. He made frequent visits to Bethlem Hospital and was made governor of it. The then became superintendent of Hanwell asylum, while continuing to travel daily to his London consulting rooms.
         In 1878 he published Insanity in Ancient and Modern life. In 1880 he became joint editor, with Dr. G. H. Savage, of the Journal of Mental Science. He held this position until his death. In 1881 he became President of the Medico-Psychological Association, and in the following year published History of the Insane in the British Isles. In 1884 he visited North America and published The Insane in the United States and Canada. In 1892, he published  the Dictionary of Psychological Medicine, for which he enlisted  128 contributors and to which he contributed sixty-eight articles.
         In the 1890s he became an examiner in mental physiology in the University of London and a lecturer on insanity at Charing Cross Hospital. He was one of the founders and subsequently chairman of the ĎAfter-Care Association, sut up in 1879 to rehabilitate female patients discharged from asylums.
 He died of a brain hemorrhage on March 5, 1895 [Renvoize, 1991, 50-2].

Daniel Hack Tuke and his sons. 1879

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